1 pronounce not guilty of criminal charges; "The suspect was cleared of the murder charges" [syn: assoil, clear, discharge, exonerate, exculpate] [ant: convict]
2 behave in a certain manner; "She carried herself well"; "he bore himself with dignity"; "They conducted themselves well during these difficult times" [syn: behave, bear, deport, conduct, comport, carry] [also: acquitting, acquitted]
EtymologyOld English aquiten, Old French aquiter, French acquitter; (Latin ad) + Old French quiter, French quitter, to quit. See quit, and compare acquiet
- acquite (archaic)
- ə-kwĭt, /əˈkwɪt/, /@"kwIt/
- (followed by "of", [formerly by "from"]): To set free, release
or discharge from an obligation, duty, liability, burden, or from
an accusation or charge; - as, the jury acquitted the prisoner of
the charge; to find not guilty.
- 1775: Richard Sheridan, The duenna - His poverty, can you acquit him of that?
- 1837: Thomas Babington Macaulay, "Lord Bacon" in The Edinburgh Review, July 1837 - If he [Bacon] was convicted, it was because it was impossible to acquit him without offering the grossest outrage to justice and common sense.
- obsolete rare To pay
for; to atone for
- , line 1071 - Till life to death acquit my forced offence.
- To discharge, as a claim or debt; to clear off; to pay off; to
requite, to fulfill.
- , 1200 - `Aquyte him wel, for goddes love,' quod he;
- 1640: Thomas Carew, Tasso - Midst foes (as champion of the faith) he ment / That palme or cypress should his painees acquite.
- 1836: Edward Everett, Orations I-382 - I admit it to be not so much the duty as the privilege of an American citizen to acquit this obligation to the memory of his fathers with discretion and generosity.
- 1844: Ralph Waldo Emerson, "Experience" in Essays: second series - We see young men who owe us a new world, so readily and lavishly they promise, but they never acquit the debt; they die young and dodge the account: or if they live, they lose themselves in the crowd.
- (Reflexively): To clear one's self
- , III-ii - Pray God he may acquit him of suspicion!
- (Reflexively)): To bear or conduct one's self; to perform one's
part; as, the soldier acquitted himself well in battle; the orator
acquitted himself very poorly.
- 1766: Oliver Goldsmith, The vicar of Wakefield, xiv - Though this was one of the first mercantile transactions of my life, yet I had no doubt about acquitting myself with reputation.
- to release, set free, rescue
- , I-vii-52 - Till I have acquit your captive Knight
- Past participle of acquit, set free, rid of
- , I-iii - I am glad I am so acquit of this tinder box.
- Webster 1913}}
In criminal law, an acquittal is a verdict of not guilty, or some similar end of the proceeding that terminates it with prejudice without a verdict of guilty being entered against the accused. The opposite result is a conviction.
In the common law tradition, an acquittal formally certifies the innocence of the accused, as far as the criminal law is concerned. This is so even where the prosecution is abandoned nolle prosequi. Under the rules of double jeopardy and autrefois acquit, an acquittal operates to bar the retrial of the accused for the same offense, even if new evidence surfaces that further implicates the accused. The effect of an acquittal on criminal proceedings is the same whether it results from a jury verdict, or whether it results from the operation of some other rule that discharges the accused.
Scots law has two acquittal verdicts: not guilty and not proven. However a verdict of "not proven" does not give rise to the double jeopardy rule.
England and Wales
In England and Wales, which share a common legal system, the Criminal Justice Act 2003 creates an exception to the double jeopardy rule, by providing that retrials may be ordered if "new and compelling evidence" comes to light after an acquittal for a serious crime. Also the Criminal Procedure and Investigations Act 1996 permits a "tainted acquittal" to be set aside in circumstances where it is proved beyond reasonable doubt that an acquittal has been obtained by violence or threats of violence to a witness or juror.
In modern England and Wales, and in all countries that substantially follow English criminal procedure, an acquittal normally results in the immediate liberation of the defendant from custody, assuming no other charges against the defendant remain to be tried. However, until 1774 a defendant acquitted by an English or Welsh court would be remanded to jail until he had paid the jailer for the costs of his confinement. It was known for acquitted persons to die in jail for lack of jailer's fees.
With one exception, in the United States an acquittal cannot be appealed by the prosecution because of the prohibition against double jeopardy. The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled:
- A verdict of acquittal, although not followed by any judgment, is a bar to a subsequent prosecution for the same offense. Ball, supra, at 672.
- Society's awareness of the heavy personal strain which a criminal trial represents for the individual defendant is manifested in the willingness to limit the Government to a single criminal proceeding to vindicate its very vital interest in enforcement of criminal laws. United States v. Jorn, 400 U.S. 470, 479 (1971)
It was decided in Fong Foo v. United States, 369 U.S. 141 (1962) that a judgement of acquittal by a jury cannot be appealed by the prosecution. In United States v. Jenkins, 420 U.S. 358 (1975), this was held applicable to bench trials. In Arizona v. Rumsey, 467 U.S. 203 (1984), it was ruled that in a bench trial, when a judge was holding a separate hearing after the jury trial, to decide if the defendant should be sentenced to death or life imprisonment, the judge decided that the circumstances of the case did not permit death to be imposed. On appeal the judge's ruling was found to be erroneous. However, even though the decision to impose life instead of death was based on an erroneous interpretation of the law by the judge, the finding of life imprisonment in the original case constituted an acquittal of the death penalty and thus death could not be imposed upon a subsequent trial. Even though the acquittal of the death penalty was erroneous in that case, the acquittal must stand.
The only exception to an acquittal being final is if the defendant was never in jeopardy at all at trial. If a defendant bribes a judge and obtains acquittal as a result of a bench trial, the acquittal is not valid because the defendant was never in jeopardy in the first place. Harry Aleman v. Judges of the Criminal Division, Circuit Court of Cook County, Illinois, et al., 183 F.3d 302 (1998).
An acquittal, while conclusive as to the criminal law, does not necessarily bar private civil actions in tort or on some other grounds as a result of the facts alleged in the charge. For example, O.J. Simpson was held civilly liable for wrongful death even after being tried and acquitted of murder. In federal states it also does not bar prosecution for the same offences under a statute at a different level of government. For example, in the United States someone acquitted of a state murder charge can be retried for the same actions on a federal charge of violating civil rights.
acquit in German: Freispruch
acquit in French: Acquittement (droit)
acquit in Dutch: Vrijspraak
absolve, amnesty, bear, carry, clear, comport, conduct, convict, decontaminate, demean, deport, destigmatize, discharge, dismiss, dispense from, exculpate, excuse, exempt, exempt from, exonerate, forgive, free, give absolution, go on, grant amnesty to, grant immunity, grant remission, justify, let go, let off, liberate, nonpros, pardon, pass sentence, penalize, purge, quash the charge, quit, release, remit, set free, shrive, vindicate, whitewash, withdraw the charge